The United States has 25,853 and 82,373 public EV charging stations and outlets, respectively. The state of California has a public EV charging connections per location ratio of 3.86, while secondary markets such as Massachusetts have a public EV charging connections per location ratio of 2.94.
- According to the U.S. Department of Energy, the number of private and public EV charging stations in the country by the number of stations, charging outlets, and the required level of charging is provided below.
1. Public Services
- Public EV charging stations: 25,853
- Charging outlets: 82,373
- Level 1: 1,518
- Level 2: 66,481
- DC fast charging: 14,319
2. Private (at-home) Services
- Private EV charging stations: 3,191
- Charging outlets: 13,575
- Level 1: 1,193
- Level 2: 12,274
- DC fast charging: 98
- A comprehensive distribution, according to the different U.S. states, is provided herein.
- The top five U.S. states with the highest penetration of public service EV charging stations are California (6,456 stations and 26,165 outlets), New York (1,704 stations and 4,826 outlets), Florida (1,414 stations and 4,070 outlets), Texas (1,315 stations and 3,873 outlets), and Washington (1,024 stations and 3,030 outlets).
- In contrast, five U.S. states with the least penetration of public service EV charging stations are Wyoming (54 stations and 156 outlets), Montana (51 stations and 135 outlets), South Dakota (41 stations and 128 outlets), North Dakota (26 stations and 51 outlets), and Alaska (20 stations and 35 outlets).
- California, a highly popular EV market, has a public EV charging connections per location ratio of 3.86, while secondary markets such as Massachusetts have a public EV charging connections per location ratio of 2.94.
- For the private EV charging stations, the top five U.S. states are California (668 stations and 3,737 outlets), Florida (220 stations and 758 outlets), Michigan (198 stations and 241 outlets), New York (132 stations and 422 outlets), and Texas (124 stations and 3,541 outlets).
- In contrast, the five U.S. states with the least penetration of private service EV charging stations are New Mexico (5 stations and 8 outlets), North Dakota (3 stations and 4 outlets), South Dakota (3 stations and 3 outlets), Wyoming (3 stations and 3 outlets), and Alaska with no charging station or outlet.
- Massachusetts has 28 private EV charging stations and 114 outlets.
- We have provided a pictorial representation of the 2019 public EV charging penetration (Figure 1) and the “charging infrastructure in place in 2017 as a percentage of infrastructure needed by 2025 to support electric vehicle market by metropolitan area” (Figure 2), below.
Dependency of Electric Vehicle Owner on At-Home Charging Station vs. Public Services
- According to a study by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on 4,000 Nissan Leafs and 1,800 Chevrolet Volts across the United States, most drivers of both brands perform their charging at home.
- 84% of the Leaf drivers charged their EV at home compared to 87% of the Volt drivers.
- Generally, EV drivers perform 80% of their car charging at home because of the low, convenient, and stable residential electricity rates. EV charging providers offer low charging rates for at-home charging stations that charge their vehicles during the none-peak load hour.
- However, the charging pattern differs depending on timing. While all overnight and weekend charging was concentrated on-at-home charging, daytime charging was divided between home and other charging locations, including work.
- Also, EV drivers who frequently used public charging stations averaged 72% more daily miles on electric power than drivers who never charged away from home.
- A summary of the survey is provided below.
Public Electric Vehicle Charging Service: How It Works
- In the United States, public EV charging stations are installed by “approved program vendors selling EV supply equipment (EVSE, or chargers) and management solutions.”
- PG & E provides a list of 21 approved EV charge network vendors in the United States.
- As of December 31, 2017, five of the nine U.S. charging network providers constituted 75.8% of the public charging locations in the country.
- ChargePoint had the highest share of the industry with 39.3% market share and 6,895 locations/sites, while Tesla had 18.9% (3,308 locations/sites) share of the market, and then Blink Network with 1,489 (8.5%).
- Other companies and their share of the industry are;
- The distribution of the EV charge network vendors stations by the different types of charging levels is provided below.
Electric Vehicle Charging Payment Methods
- In the United States, the EV charging payment method differs depending on the EV charging vendor.
- The different methods of billing used by vendors include;
- Most public EV charging vendors make use of the hourly payment method, while others use a combination of the different payment methods.
- We have provided the payment method of two EV charging vendors (EVgo and Blink) for in-depth understanding.
- Also, the charging method is sometimes dependent on the level of charging being used. This is because different levels consume varying units of power or current.
Most Common EV Charging Providers
- According to a publication by EVAdoption, the top two U.S. electric vehicle charging station companies by their share of the industry are ChargePoint and Tesla.
- A website link to ChargePoint’s EV charging is provided herein.
- The company offers at-home and public (workplace or roadside) EV charging stations.
- Globally, ChargePoint has 113,300 charging sites. Its public and private charging stations are spread across the US, Mexico, Canada, and other countries.
- In 2017, ChargePoint had 6,895 EV charging locations in the United States.
- On 31 March 2020, the company allied with Allego and EVBox Group to support the launching of new consumer-centric EV policies.
- A website link to Tesla’s EV charging is provided herein.
- Tesla offers at-home and public (workplace or roadside) EV charging stations.
- As of 2017, the company had 3,308 EV charging locations in the United States. Supercharge.info reported that Tesla currently has 908 supercharging sites in the U.S.
- Globally, Tesla has 16,565 Superchargers across 1,870 stations in 36 countries.
- The company announced in December 2019 of its proposed partnership with EVgo, which will allow Tesla owners to charge their EVs at EVgo charging stations without the need for an adapter.
- The company suggests that it is working towards constructing new charging sites to enable additional routes and expansion of popular stations.
It is noteworthy to state that there are three different types of EV charging supply equipment (EVSE) in the U.S. Also, for our work, we have made the below assumption;
- That home and workplace charging is done using Level 1 and Level 2 EVSE, while public charging is done using Level 2 and direct current (DC) fast chargers.
The table below describes the different EVSE, their voltage, specifications, power, and the number of electric miles they deliver to electric vehicles.