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The United States has 25,853 and 82,373 public EV charging stations and outlets, respectively. The state of California has a public EV charging connections per location ratio of 3.86, while secondary markets such as Massachusetts have a public EV charging connections per location ratio of 2.94.

  • According to the U.S. Department of Energy, the number of private and public EV charging stations in the country by the number of stations, charging outlets, and the required level of charging is provided below.

1. Public Services

2. Private (at-home) Services

EV Charging units by state and charging level

Charging infrastructure in place in 2017 as a percentage of infrastructure needed by 2025 to support electric vehicle market by metropolitan area

Dependency of Electric Vehicle Owner on At-Home Charging Station vs. Public Services

  • According to a study by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on 4,000 Nissan Leafs and 1,800 Chevrolet Volts across the United States, most drivers of both brands perform their charging at home.
  • 84% of the Leaf drivers charged their EV at home compared to 87% of the Volt drivers.
  • Generally, EV drivers perform 80% of their car charging at home because of the low, convenient, and stable residential electricity rates. EV charging providers offer low charging rates for at-home charging stations that charge their vehicles during the none-peak load hour.
  • However, the charging pattern differs depending on timing. While all overnight and weekend charging was concentrated on-at-home charging, daytime charging was divided between home and other charging locations, including work.
  • Also, EV drivers who frequently used public charging stations averaged 72% more daily miles on electric power than drivers who never charged away from home.
  • A summary of the survey is provided below.

Away-from-home charging statisitics

Public Electric Vehicle Charging Service: How It Works

2017 Charging Station Types by Charging Network

Electric Vehicle Charging Payment Methods

Most Common EV Charging Providers

  • According to a publication by EVAdoption, the top two U.S. electric vehicle charging station companies by their share of the industry are ChargePoint and Tesla.

1. ChargePoint

2. Tesla

  • A website link to Tesla’s EV charging is provided herein.
  • Tesla offers at-home and public (workplace or roadside) EV charging stations.
  • As of 2017, the company had 3,308 EV charging locations in the United States. Supercharge.info reported that Tesla currently has 908 supercharging sites in the U.S.
  • Globally, Tesla has 16,565 Superchargers across 1,870 stations in 36 countries.
  • The company announced in December 2019 of its proposed partnership with EVgo, which will allow Tesla owners to charge their EVs at EVgo charging stations without the need for an adapter.
  • The company suggests that it is working towards constructing new charging sites to enable additional routes and expansion of popular stations.

Research Strategy

It is noteworthy to state that there are three different types of EV charging supply equipment (EVSE) in the U.S. Also, for our work, we have made the below assumption;

  • That home and workplace charging is done using Level 1 and Level 2 EVSE, while public charging is done using Level 2 and direct current (DC) fast chargers.

The table below describes the different EVSE, their voltage, specifications, power, and the number of electric miles they deliver to electric vehicles.  

 Electric vehicle charging infrastructure terminology and specifications in the United States
TDM

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